- 1 Clinical Question
- 2 Bottom Line
- 3 Major Points
- 4 Guidelines
- 5 Design
- 6 Population
- 7 Interventions
- 8 Outcomes
- 9 Criticisms
- 10 Funding
- 11 Further Reading
In adult patients with bone or joint infection requiring at least 6 weeks of antibiotic therapy, is treatment with oral antibiotics non-inferior to intravenous therapy for the first 6 weeks of treatment?
Following initial therapy with intravenous antimicrobials, 6 weeks of oral therapy was non-inferior to intravenous therapy.
Managing bone and joint infections usually requires weeks of intravenous antibiotics. Given the length of hospital stay, logistical challenges with outpatient administration, and cost associated with IV antibiotics, an oral alternative would be attractive if equally or similarly efficacious. Meta analysis suggested that route of administration did not significantly impact rates of disease remission.
The Oral Versus Intravenous Antibiotics for Bone and Joint Infection (OVIVA) trial was a multicenter, parallel group, 1:1 randomized, open label, non-inferiority trial comparing IV to oral therapy in 1054 patients. The investigators followed patients for 1 year for treatment failure, and the statistical design prespecified a non-inferiority margin of 7.5%. Randomizing patients with an expected majority of gram-positive infections, there was no statistical difference in the rate of treatment failure between groups; IV with 14.6% compared to oral with 13.2% (95% CI -5.6 to 2.9). Possible or probable treatment failure was similar between groups along with rates of C. difficile-associated diarrhea and other adverse events. Therapy with IV antibiotics were associated with a longer hospital length of stay (14 vs. 11 days; P<0.001) with more early therapy discontinuation (18.9% vs. 12.8%; P=0.006, NNH 16) and more IV catheter complications (9.4% vs. 1.0%, P<0.001; NNT 12).
There are a number of limitations with this trial, including investigator discretion with use of certain antibiotics (including rifampin). Nevertheless, with only 4% of patients lost to follow-up the robustness of the findings hold merit. The practical application of this trial is potentially practice changing.
In a similar vein, the 2019 POET study compared oral antibiotics to intravenous antibiotics in the treatment of endocarditis.
As of April 2019, no guidelines have been published that reflect the results of this trial.
- Multi-center, parallel group, randomized, open label, non-inferiority trial
- Intravenous antibiotics (n=527)
- Oral antibiotics (n=527)
- Setting: 26 centers in the UK
- Enrollment: 2010-2015
- Follow-up: 1 year
- Analysis: Intention-to-treat
- Primary Outcome: Definite treatment failure within 1 year after randomization
- Age ≥18 years
- Bone or joint infection requiring 6 weeks of antibiotics
- Specific infections include one of the following:
- Osteomyelitis of the extraaxial native skeleton
- Native joint infection requiring excision arthroplasty
- Prosthetic joint infection
- Orthopedic fixation-device infection
- Vertebral osteomyelitis +/- associated discitis or soft-tissue infection
- Specific infections include one of the following:
- Received ≤7 days of IV therapy from the date of definitive surgery or the start of planned curative treatment in patients managed non-operatively
- Life expectancy >1 year
- Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia or any bacterial endocarditis on presentation or within prior month
- Mild osteomyelitis not requiring 6 weeks of therapy per clinician judgement
- Septic shock
- Infection where no oral option is a viable option
- Non-bacterial infection
- Demographics: median age 60 years, 64.3% male
- Baseline surgical procedure: No prosthetic present and underwent debridement 31%, no prosthetic and no debridement 5%, debridement and implant retention 23%, orthopedic device removal 16%, prosthetic joint removal 13%, prosthetic joint revision 8%, spinal debridement 1%, spinal surgery 2%
- Deep tissue histology: Infected 52%, equivocal 3%, Uninfected 6%, not available or missing 40%
- Microbiological diagnostic sample: ≥2 samples of same organism 66%, 1 of 2 samples positive for likely organism causing infection 5%, no sample positive 15%, not available or missing 5%
- Organism: Staphylococcus aureus 38%, Coagulase-negative staphylococcus (CoNS) 27%, Streptococcus species 15%, Pseudomonas species 5%, Other gram-negative organisms 17%, culture negative 16%
- Antimicrobials: Glycopeptides IV (e.g., vancomycin) 23%, Penicillins IV 5%, Cephalosporins IV 17%, Carbapenems IV 4%, Penicillins PO 9%, Quinolones PO 22%, Macrolides PO 8%,
- Rifampin: None 51%, <2 weeks 5%, 2-6 weeks 16%, >6 weeks 27%
- Within initiated within 7 days of definitive therapy (e.g., following surgical intervention and after microbiological sensitivities available), participants were randomized to a group:
- IV antibiotics - Continued for 6 weeks
- PO antibiotics - Continued for 6 weeks
- Limited (up to 5 days) IV or oral adjunctive therapy was allowed based on local practice patterns
- Adjunctive rifampin was allowed at investigator discretion
- Therapy beyond 6 weeks was allowed at investigator discretion
Comparisons are intravenous therapy vs. oral therapy.
- Definite treatment failure within 1 year after randomization
- Missing data were imputed.
- 14.6% vs. 13.2% (risk difference oral vs. IV -1.4%; 95% CI -5.6 to 2.9)
- Probable or possible treatment failure
- 1.2% vs. 2.0%
- Early discontinuation of therapy
- 18.9% vs. 12.8% (ARR 6.1, P = 0.006) NNT 16
- Median hospital length of stay
- 14 days vs. 11 days, P < 0.001
- Adherence at day 14
- High 68.1% vs. 68.3%
- Low 2.8% vs. 5.9%
- Adherence at day 42
- High 67.5% vs. 51.4%
- Low 3.6 vs. 7.7%
- Complications from the IV catheter
- 9.4% vs. 1.0% (ARR 8.4%, P < 0.001) NNT 12
- C. difficile-associated diarrhea
- 1.7% vs. 1.0%, P = 0.30
- At least one serious adverse event
- 27.7% vs. 26.2%, P = 0.58
- Incidence of serious adverse events was very high
- Open-label design, while improved practicality of conducting the trial complicates the potential for bias
- Depending on the delivery of the IV therapy, the oral group may have had significantly less monitoring
- No comparison of antimicrobial regiments was made and bias may have been present
- Rifampin was more commonly utilized in the oral group
- Antibiotic regimens were not prespecified in the protocol
- NIHR Health Technology Assessment Programme
- Spellberg B & Lipsky BA Systemic antibiotic therapy for chronic osteomyelitis in adults. Clin. Infect. Dis. 2012. 54:393-407.
- Rangel SJ et al. Intravenous Versus Oral Antibiotics for the Prevention of Treatment Failure in Children With Complicated Appendicitis: Has the Abandonment of Peripherally Inserted Catheters Been Justified?. Ann. Surg. 2017. 266:361-368.
- Conterno LO & Turchi MD Antibiotics for treating chronic osteomyelitis in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2013. :CD004439.
- Supplemental appendix
- Li HK et al. Oral versus intravenous antibiotic treatment for bone and joint infections (OVIVA): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial. Trials 2015. 16:583.